Packaging Glossary

   
 

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A.C.L.
Applied Color Lettering. Colored Lettering or design of a ceramic nature fused onto bottles. Employs screen printing to transfer glass frit (powdered glass colorant) to the surface of a bottle or glass container. The design is fired, heated in a lehr and becomes permanently fused.

   
   

Accelerated Test
Laboratory performance test of a container or coating to evaluate its performance in a shorter time interval than that required under actual service conditions. Ex: Performing chemical resistance tests at elevated temperatures.

   
   

Acrylic
Thermoplastic materials, such as Lucite and Plexiglas, made by polymerization of monomeric esters of acrylic acids.

   
   

Acrylonitrile
Abbreviation AN. Rigid, natural crystal color, transparent, generally excellent barrier properties, fair resistance to water permeation, good impact strength. Used in thermoforming.

   
   

Aerosol Components
Extruded aluminum containers, plastic coated bottles, closures and overcaps. Aerosol bottles and aluminum containers are available in various sizes, shoulder configurations, diameters, and neck finishes. Decorating options are available.

   
   

Aerosol Propellants
Liquefied or Compressed gasses that are packed with a product in a pressure-propulsion container in order to provide sufficient pressure to propel the product through a valve to give the form of discharge desired.

   
   

Amber Glass
A brown colored glass used principally for beer, medicine and liquor containers. The color decreases the effect of some forms of light which would be injurious to the contents of the container.

   
   

Ampules/Accessories
Glass and plastic ampules, and accessories such as holders, breakers, sleeves etc.

   
   

Anneal
A controlled temperature process in whichglass in gradually cooled in ovens or lehrs to avoid the creation of stresses and strains within the glass due to natural or uneven cooling. The annealing temperature in glass is about 1000 degrees F.

   
   

Antioxidant
A chemical substance that can be added to plastic resin to minimize or prevent the effects of oxygen attack on the plastic (Ex. Yellowing or Degradation). Such chemical attack by oxygen may render plastic brittle or cause it to lose desired mechanical properties.

   
   

Anti-Skid Corrugated
Corrugated board with embossed or chemically-treated surface, to increase coefficient or friction, so containers made from the treated board will produce a more stable pallet or unit load.

   
   

Antistatic Agent
A substance applied to the surface of a plastic article, or incorporated in the plastic from which the article is to be made, so as to render the surface of the plastic less susceptible to accumulation of electrostatic charges which attract and hold fine dirt or dust to the surface. There are two types:  (1) Metallic devices, and (2) Chemical additives, either internal or surface applied.

   
   

Applicator Cap
A container closure designed so that it may be used to apply the contents of the container, such as oil and grease spouts or daubers.

   
   

Applicator Rod
Short glass rod 2-4mm in diameter used in conjunction with an applicator cap. The end which enters the cap is cut square. The other end may be a variety of glazed finishes.

   
   

AQL
Acceptable Quality Level. The maximum percentage or proportion of variant (or defective) units in a lot or batch that, for the purposes of acceptance sampling, can be considered satisfactory as a process average.

   
   

Aromatherapy Packaging
Items used to package aromatherapy products, including glass and aluminum bottles, vials, perfume samplers and candle holders.

   
   

Aseptic Packaging
A technique for creating a shelf stable container by placing a commercially sterile product into a commercially sterile container. The process involves sterilizing a product in its intended container (usually separately) and then bringing them together within a sterile environment for filling and sealing. The sealed container is designed to maintain a sterile product until the seal is broken. In addition, when packaged aseptically, the product does not require refrigeration until the package seal is broken. Used for drink boxes, wine (bag in box), tomato products and soy milk.

   
   

Atomizers
Various styles of atomizers and purse sprayers are available, including metal, aluminum, molded glass, plastic and pastel enamel.

   
   

Autoclave
A pressure vessel into which steam or other vapor can be introduced at a suitable high temperature to sterilize packages or other objects placed therein. Similar pressure vessels used for sterilizing food products packed in glass jars or cans are normally called retorts.

   
 

Average Wall Thickness
A number obtained by adding the thickest wall section measurement of a container to the thinnest wall section and dividing by two (2). It does not describe the distribution of plastic material in a container.

 
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Back Off
Loosening of Cap; can be caused by improper cap application torque, improper mating of the cap to the container, or improper liner facing and/or backing.

   
   

Backing Liner
The compressible paper material, usually pulp or newsboard, to which the liner is attached or adhered. This compressible paper material compensates for any irregularities on the sealing surface. Also provides strength, or  water resistance, or better appearance.

   
   

Bar Code
An identification symbol where the value is encoded in a sequence  of high contrast rectangular bars and spaces. The relative widths of these bars and spaces contain the information. Information is by visual or electronic means.

   
   

Barex
Barex is a polymer composed primarily acrylonitrile, methylacrylate and butadiene as comonomers. It offers excellent gas barrier properties, good impact and chemical resistance. Barex containers are used for many agricultural chemicals. Barex is a registered trademark of BP Chemical Inc.

   
   

Barrier Material
Term used to prescribe one or two classes of specialized packaging materials that provide environmental protection to the package contents: (1) gas-, moisture-, or light proof materials that control or eliminate the amount of these environmental constituents that pass into or out of a package; (2) a porous material possessing a structure that prevents the passage of microorganisms that might contaminate the contents of a package.

   
   

Biodegradeable
The degredation of material from naturally occurring microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi or algae over a period of time.

   
   

Blow Molding
A method of fabrication in which a warm plastic parison (hollow tube) is placed between the 2 halves of a mold (cavity) and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by the use of air pressue.

   
   

Blow Pin
Part of the tooling used to form hollow objects or containers by the blow molding process. It is a tubular tool through which air pressure is introduced into the parison to create the air process  necessary to form the parison into the shape of the mold. On some blow molding systems, it is a part of, or an extension of, the core pin.

   
   

Boston Round
A style of bottle characterized by a round cylindrical shape with a short curved shoulder. Typically used by the drug and chemical industries.

   
   

Bottles (Aluminum)
Various diameters, shoulder configurations and container mouth sizes are available along with 7 to 8 color printing.

   
   

Bottles (Glass)
Vendors offer an assortment of glass bottles for the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food and beverage industries. Included are safety coated bottles, 24% lead crystal bottles, and exotic-shaped, foreign-made bottles. Various decorating options are available on some items.

   
   

Bottles (Plastic)
Vendors offer an assortment of stock and custom plastic bottles for the pharmaceutical, animal care, chemical, industrial, automotive, hazardous materials, cosmetic, food, household and personal care markets. Various shapes, sizes, neck fishes, resins (HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS, PE, PET, PVC, PCR, EVOH, EVA, K-Resin, High Gloss, Nylon, Polycarbonate) as well as decorating options are available.

   
   

Bottom Plate
The part of the mold which contains the heel (base) radius and the “push up” of the container to be formed.

   
   

Brushes
Cosmetic, Manicure, Dental, Jewelry cleaning, Medical Applicator, Nail Polish Plug, Bath Scrub, Wood Handle, Acid, and Twisted Wire Brushes.

   
 

Buttress Thread
A design of thread profile (cross section) which takes the form of a right triangle or slight modification of that form.  It is usually positioned so that the right angle is at the bottom of the thread cross section and adjacent to the neck of the bottle finish. The horizontal leg of the right triangle is the bearing surface for a matching cap thread. The thread sides terminate abruptly in threading, gradually tapering down to the neck finish. The buttress thread is designed to withstand maximum force in one direction only.

 

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Can Closures
Stock and custom can closures in a variety of sizes.

   
   

Candle Holders
Glass, leaded glass, and plastic candle holders are available in a variety of styles, including tabletop, aromatherapy, etc.

   
   

Canning Supplies
Mason Jars and Closures

   
   

Cans (Fiber)
Rigid cans made of compressed paper (plant fiber) material. Metal or plastic end caps available.

   
   

Cans (Metal)
Stock and custom styles, including cone top, aerosol, F-Style, easy open, open top, brush top, wing-open, tennis ball, paint, utility, seamless, oblong, TT and slip cover. Various shapes, sizes and decoration options are available.

   
   

Cans (Plastic)
Stock and custom styles, including cone top, aerosol, F-style, 5 gallon square, paint and utility cans.

   
   

Capacity
The volume of space inside a container provided for a given amount of product. Note the difference between capacity and overflow capacity.

   
   

Caps
Stock and custom specialty caps made of metal, plastic, rubber, paper, neoprene or silicone intended to slip on to or insert into the end of any object to close packages such as mailing tubes or the rigid plastic rubes for displaying merchandise such as nuts or bolts, or to protect the object itself.

   
   

Cavity
In plastic blow molding, the parts of the mold that combine to provide the container body shape.

   
   

CC
Cubic Centimeter. A Unit for measuring volume, 1cc = 0.0338 ounce.

   
   

CCP
Clay Coated Pulp (CCP). A backing material to which facings are laminated in the i manufacture of duplex liners. CCP is pulpboard with a white clay i coating on one side. The clay coating is used to prevent i discoloration and the absorption of wax. Thickness is per i specification.

   
   

Ceramic Labelling
A process of labeling glass containers with a label composed of colored glass that is fused to the container.

   
   

Certificate of Compliance
A document signed by an authorized party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract or regulation.

   
   

Child Resistant Cap
Also CRC. A closure that requires dissimilar motions which make removal by a child difficult and I compliant with the Code of Federal Regulations Title 16, Part 1700.

   
   

Choked Neck
A narrow or constricted opening in the neck of a container.

   
   

Chuck
A clamping device designed to tighten screw caps.

   
   

Clean Room
Assembly and packaging services in clean room facilities using anti-contamination.

   
   

Closure Plugs/Fitments
Any of various styles of plastic and metal closure plugs and fitments intended to reduce the size of a bottle neck finish for a more controlled dispensing of product. Plugs and fitments are available for a wide variety of end uses.

   
   

Closures
Stock and custom closures, including plastic, glass, rubber, metal, dispensing (hinged top, snap top, disc top, thread, snap on, push/pull), conventional (ribbed, fluted, smooth), specialty (bleach, brush well, jigger, button seal, aerosol, perforated), linerless, lined, applicator, decorative, child resistant, tamper evident, heat seal, crimp-on, and a Counter Cap closure.

   
   

Closures w/ Europa Threads
Closures with a specific thread configuration standard called Europa. Various Europa thread sizes are available.

   
   

Co-Extrusion
Extruding two or more layers of thermoplastic materials to form a combined film sheet or molded unit. Limited to plastics.

   
   

Collapsible Tube
Cylindrical container of thin, flexible metal with integral shoulder and neck, with a screw cap closure made of plastic. Collapsible tubes can also be made of paper, films, plastics etc. They may have wax, resin or lacquer linings. Collapsible tubes are usually filled through the bottom and subsequently closed by multiple folding of the bottom or crimped with a metal clip or sometimes welded tight.

   
   

Color Concentrate
A measured amount of dye or pigment incorporated into a predetermined amount of plastic which is then “let down” (mixed) into larger quantities of virgin plastic material to be used for molding. The “concentrate” is added to the bulk of plastic in a measured quantity in order to produce a precise, predetermined color of the finished articles to be molded.

   
   

Compatibility
Ability of a container, whether lined or unlined, to resist degradation of or by the product contained.

   
   

Composite Can
A rigid container with the body made of fiberboard or fiberboard  in combination with other other materials such as metal foils or plastics. One or both ends may be made of metal, plastic or other materials.

   
   

Compostable Plastic
Plastic that undergoes degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable materials and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue.

   
   

Compound
The resin, along with modifiers, pigments, antioxidants, lubricants, etc., which are to be molded or blown into final form.

   
   

Compression Molding
A method of forming objects from plastics by placing the material in a confining mold cavity, then applying pressure, and usually heat.

   
   

Containers (Hinged Lid)
Any container with a lid attached by means of a hinge. Cosmetic compacts and accessory cases,  carrying cases, luggage, lunch boxes , attaché cases and recyclable containers.

   
   

Continuous Thread
An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of the container to hold a screw type closure. Continuous thread finishes have GPI finish designations in the 400 series. See also CT.

   
   

Convolute Can
A can with the body of made of fibreboard formed by convolute winding of paper to build up the required thickness.

   
   

Copolymer
A material whose chemical structure is made up of long chains of 2 differently structured chemical units (monomers), which repeat a more or less regular pattern in the chain. Also see Polymer.

   
   

Cosmetic Cases
Items intended for packaging cosmetics, including lipstick cases, mascara cases, eye/lip pencils, blush pots, compacts, palette compacts, etc.

   
   

Crab Claw Seal
Named for its shape, it is a thin flexible protrusion molded into a closure which will compress against a bottle sealing surface during normal capping operations. It prevents leakage and will seal a variety of bottles. The bottle land (the bottle’s sealing surface) must be flat and free of defects because this sealing method requires compression to be effective.

   
 

CRC
Child Resistant Closure. There are several types that have been developed for products that constitute a hazard to small children. Basic principles of CRC’s are (1) press turn, (2) squeeze turn and (3) combination lock and hidden key.

 

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Daubers
Normally part of an applicator closure. Popular for cosmetic, household and pharmaceutical products. Usually fitted with sponges or cotton, wool or felt pads, like those provided with liquid shoe polish or bingo ink bottles.

   
   

Deep Skirt
A cap having a deeper skirt (more “H”) and generally a heavier thread than the 400 finish series.

   
   

Deodorant Containers
Stock and custom deodorant sticks in round, oval or flat-pack design, with push-up or propel/repel assembly.

   
   

Desiccants
A drying agent possessing a high affinity for water vapor, it is used to control the humidity level in sealed packages. Any of various materials used as drying agents during the packaging process. Common desiccants include silica gel and calcium oxide. A wide choice of standard and custom desiccant items is available to accommodate any package.

   
   

Die
Any tool or tools designed to cut, shape or form materials to a desired configuration.

   
   

Dimension “C”
The “C” dimension of a bottle is the opening control diameter (inside diameter) at the top of the neck finish.

   
   

Dimension “E”
The outside diameter of the neck. The difference between the “E” and “T” dimensions divided by 2 determines the thread depth.

   
   

Dimension “H”
BOTTLE “H” Dimension: The height of the neck finish. Measured from the top of the neck to the point where the diameter “T”, extended down, intersects the shoulder. The bottle finish “H” must be greater than closure “H” (corrected for the thickness of the compressed liner or other sealing elements). CLOSURE “H”: The “H” dimension is measured from the inside top of the closure vertically down to the bottom of the closure skirt. Effective “H” must take into consideration the liner, or other sealing elements, if one is used. To determine effective “H”, liner thickness or other sealing element under compression must be determined and subtracted from unlined “H”.

   
   

Dimension “T”
The outside diameter of the closure, including the thread. The tolerance range of the “T” dimension determines the mate between the bottle and the closure.

   
   

Dimension “I”
The minimum opening through the finish and neck expressed by measuring the inner diameter of the neck at its narrowest point. Specifications require a minimum “I” to allow sufficient clearance for filling tubes. Linerless closures, with a plug or land seal, and dispensing plugs and fitments require a controlled “I” dimension for proper fit.

   
   

Dimension “L”
L dimension is the minimum vertical dimension to the top of a concealed bead for closure thread clearance. It is measured from the top of the finish to the point where diameter “E” extended parallel to centerline intersects the bead.

   
   

Dimension “S”
Measured from the top of the finish to the top edge of the first thread. The “S” dimension is the key factor which determines the orientation of the closure to the bottle and the amount of thread engagement between the bottle and cap.

   
   

Disc Top
Injected molded two piece dispensing closure. The one hand, one finger action closure has gained high consumer preference particularly on personal careand sun care products. Contrasting colors can be incorporated into the design be selecting different colors for the closure body and disc. Also called the Press Top.

   
   

Dropper Bottles
A specific bottle style, available in glass and plastic, intended to accommodate closures with dropper squeeze bulbs and pipettes.

   
   

Dropper Unit w/ Pipette
A closure with an attached squeeze bulb and dispensing pipette intended for the cosmetic , pharmaceutical, medical, laboratory and health and personal care markets. Various options available to suit individual package requirements.

   
   

Drum/Pail Accessories
Flanges, plugs, caps, lids, fittings, clips, vents, seals, seal removal tools, gaskets, liners, drum trucks, drum overpacks, funnels, containment units, pumps, pour spouts, spigots, wrenches and valves.

   
 

Drums
Steel,  stainless steel, polyethylene, composite, and fiber drums. Styles include open and closed head, tight head, round, square, bulk, lined and unlined, seamed and seamless, lock-ring, drums with agitator assemblies , over pack /salvage drums, and reconditioned drums.

 

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EBM
Extrusion Blow Molding. A parison is extruded into a mold cavity and then blown into a bottle.

   
   

Emboss
Raised design or lettering on the surface of an object accomplished by pressure of dies, rollers, printing press, etc.

   
   

EPS
Expandable polystyrene. A generic term for polystyrene an styrene copolymers, supplied as a compound with physical blowing agents and other additives which can be processed into low density foamed articles. A major end-use is cushioned packaging. Low molding pressures and economical tooling make EPS molding an inexpensive method of producing foam shapes.

   
   

Etch
(1)To treat a material with an acid, leaving the parts of the material which remain in relief to form the desired design.  (2) To corrode the interior of a tin can sufficiently to be visible as an irregular instead of polished surface.

   
   

EVA
Ethylene-Vinyl acetate. Copolymers from these two monomers retain many of the properties of polyethylene, but have considerably increased flexibility for their density. Elongation and impact resistance are also increased. Used for making film, coatings, and adhesives. The combination of high clarity, puncture resistance, impact strength and low heat seal temperatures makes EVA desirable for flexible packaging.

   
   

EVOH
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Plastics produced by combining the processability of ethylene polymers with the barrier properties obtained from vinyl and alcohol polymers. The result is a material offering excellent processability and superior barrier to gasses, odors, fragrances, solvents, etc.

   
 

Extrusion
A method of shaping a plastic material by forcing it, with the application of heat and pressure, through an orifice in a continuous fashion.

 

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FDA
Food & Drug Administration. This agency governs what items may be used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. It regulates the labeling of foods, drugs, cosmetics and devices under both FPLA (Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, 1966) and FFDCA (Federal Food, Drug, Cosmetic Act).

   
   

Fill Point
The level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.

   
   

Finish
In general, the plastic forming the opening of a container shaped to accommodate a specific closure. Also, the ultimate surface structure of an article. Finish is expressed as 24-410, 20mm Crimp, 38mm Snap, etc. The Finish description reflects the outside diameter of a bottle or jar’s neck in mm’s, and a thread configuration or some other description of how the closure fits on the container. Common configurations are -410, -2030, etc.

   
   

Fitment
A plug that fits within the neck of a bottle to control the flow of products such as suntan lotions, coupled with a non-dispensing closure. The primary (non-dispensing) closure is usually removed each time to provide the desired function, while the fitment (plug) remains in place.

   
   

Flame Treating
Exposing plastic bottles or film to a gas flame to promote oxidation and increase the polarity of the surface, which makes them receptive to inks, lacquers and adhesives. The amount of flame treatment is dependent on the condition and position of the flame and time of exposure.

   
   

Flange
(1) Generally, a projecting or flared edge, rib, etc., to hold, strengthen or facilitate the use of an object or part. (2) In steel drums and cans, a right angle flare or nearly right angle is formedin the ends of the body-cylinder to enable heads and bottoms to be a double seamed to the body. (3) In drum closures, the threaded fitting which receives the closure plug.

   
   

Flange Cap Seal
Tamper resistant closure over plugs in drums and pails.

   
   

Flash
Extra plastic attached to a molding along the parting line; it must be removed before the part can be considered finished. Also called a fin or cut off.

   
   

Flask
A style of narrow neck bottle, usually of elliptical cross section, with flattened side walls having a width of four or more times the thickness.

   
   

Flint
Clear glass used for different types of containers.

   
   

Fluorination
Single Step Fluorination: Molding of containers using fluorine instead of air. This process creates a chemical reaction by which a barrier layer is created on the interior of the surfaces of the container. Also called in-line fluorination. Post Treatment Fluorination:  This process of treating existing containers involves exposing the containers to a controlled environment which introduces fluorine to the treatment chamber. The exposure to the fluorine effects a barrier on both the internal and external surfaces of the container in the same step as Single Step Fluorination.

   
   

Foil (Laminated)
Foil bonded to other materials such as paper, board, films, etc., by means of an adhesive.

   
   

Friction Fit
Refers to a type of plug can closure. The plug is designed so that frictional resistance to movement exists between the plug and the part of the container designed to hold it.

   
   

Frosting
A crystalline finish or pattern on a glass surface.

   
 

F-Style Can
Called “F” because it was originally created to package Flit insecticide. It is a rectangular metal can with a pouring spout.

 

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Gamma Irradiation
Sterilization by means of exposure to a source of gamma rays, normally Cobalt 60.

   
   

Gas Transmission Rate
A measure of the permeability of a packaging film to gases by measuring the movement of a gas through the film under specified conditions.

   
   

Gasket
A liner applied between the sealing surface of container lip and closure to provide the ultimate seal.

   
   

Gaskets
Cork, cork and rubber, rubber, fiber, paper, plastic, silicone, sponge, and non-asbestos gaskets.

   
   

Gate
In a molding process, a restricted section of runner at the edge of an injection mold cavity, serving to permit entrance of the plastic material into the closed cavity and core assembly.

   
   

GCMI
Glass Container Manufacturing Institute

   
   

Glass Coating, Safety
Stock and custom glass containers with special safety and shatterproof coatings.

   
   

Glass Types
4 types of glass are specified by the U.S. Pharmacopoeia on the basis of chemical durability tests. Types I,II, and III are intended for packaging parenteral  preperations and Type NP for non-parenteral products. Type I: Containers normally made of borosilicate glass having a highly resistant composition. Type II: Containers made of a commercial soda-lime glass which have been treatedon the inside surface at a high temperature to obtain a great improvement in chemical resistance. Type III: Untreated glass containers made of commercial soda-lime glass of average or somewhat above average chemical resistance. Type NP: Untreated glass containers made of ordinary soda lime glass.

   
   

Gloss
Shine or luster of the surface of a material. If a surface clearly and plainly reflects an image of light, it has a high gloss.

   
 

GMP
Good Manufacturing Practices. Regulations promulgated by the FDA under which device manufacturers must produce, package, and label their device.

 

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HDPE
High density polyethylene. The resin of choice in blow molding because it is stiff, chemical resistant, has good processing behavior and good environmental stress crack resistance (ESCR). This ESCR makes it a good choice for bleach and detergent bottles where resins have densities between 0.950 and 0.960 and above are commonly chosen. Injection blow molding is a proven and valued processing technique when a container benefits from excellent neck finish and lack of pinch off.

   
   

Headspace
Space between the level of the contents of a container and the closure. Headspace is required to allow for expansion of a product due to heat or pressure, and to allow the container to be grasped without  spilling the contents.

   
   

Heat Transfer
Process similar to hot stamping except preprinted images on a carrier web are applied by heat and pressure to the surface to be printed. Multicolor decoration is a one-step process. Method is widely used for decorating plastic bottles but also for glass and folding cartons.

   
   

Heat Transfer Label
Labels printed with special inks on a web from which they are transferred to containers by application of heat as they contact the container surface.

   
   

Heat Seal
A method of uniting two or more surfaces by fusion, either of the coatings or of the base materials, under controlled conditions of temperature, pressure and time (dwell).

   
   

Heat Seal Label
A label made of paper or other material coated on one side with a heat seal coating , usually a thermoplastic resin, characteristically difficult to remove after application.

   
   

Hot Filling
The product, usually a liquid, is passed through a heat exchanger and then filled at elevated temperatures. The closure is then applied. Any microbiological contamination on the inner surfaces of the container (usually a bottle) is destroyed by the hot liquid without heating the bottle itself, as in the technique of in-bottle pasteurization.

   
   

Hot Stamping
This decorating technique utilizes a die (design) that cuts metal foils from a ribbon and by heat, embosses the design onto the surface of the plastic containers. Often used in conjunction with silk screening on cosmetic containers such as those used for shampoos and conditioners.

   
 

Hot Melt Adhesive
Adhesive, solid at room temperature, which is liquefied by heat, applied molten, and forms a bond by cooling and solidifying. Based on thermoplastic polymers generally modified with resins and/or waxes. Usually used in range of 250 to 400 degrees F.

 

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ID
Inside diameter of a container or container part, ordinarily of the container shell or body.

   
   

Imperial Gallon
The British Gallon, equal to 277.274 cubic inches, or about 4.8 U.S. Quarts.

   
   

Induction Sealing
A sealing technique in which by excitation by means of high frequency electric impulse causes materials to bond. Usually associated with inner seals whether they are applied separately or as an integral part (metal or plastic) of the closure.

   
   

Injection Blow Molding
A two stage process of plastic bottle manufacturing where a pre-form or parison is injection molded . The bottle finish is formed at this time. A pre-form is then transferred to a blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape.

   
   

Injection Mold
A mold in which a plastic resin is introduced by pressure from an exterior heated cylinder.

   
   

Injection Molding
A molding process whereby a heat softened plastic resin is forced from a heating cylinder into a relatively cool cavity which gives the product a desired shape.

   
   

Ink Jet Printing
Non impact method of printing whereby tiny drops of ink are formed into letter, number or other configuration and sprayed on to the object or surface to be printed. Can be used for high speed printing.  A major application is for code marking beverage can.

   
   

In Mold Labeling
Process by which preprinted labels are placed in the mold before the plastic in injected into the mold. This form of labeling is very economical for large manufacturing runs , as it does not require any additional processes on the production line or post production decorating.

   
   

Inner Seal
An extra seal of comprising a sheet that is resistant to water vapor or vapor from some chemical, and adhered to the top end of a container below the regular cover or closure, to give added protection to the contents, such as: hygroscopic materials like soluble coffee, volatile chemicals such as chloroform, or creams and ointments containing volatile ingredients. The added protection includes: barrier to movement of water vapor or volatile chemicals and perfumes, and added protection against tempering, contamination and leakage.

   
   

Interrupted Thread
Threads on the neck finish of bottles that are not continuous, having gaps at seam areas to avoid scratching internal coatings on closures.

   
 

Irradiation, Atomic
As applied to plastics, refers to bombardment with a variety of subatomic particles, generally alpha-, beta-, or gamma rays. Atomic irradiation has been used to initiate polymerization and copolymerization of plastics and in some cases to bring about changes in the physical properties of a plastic material.

 

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Jars, Plastic
Stock and custom plastic jars in PP, PS, PE, PVC, PET, PETG, SAN, HDPE and LDPE. Decorating options are available on most items.

   
 

Jug
A bottle, usually of half-gallon or larger capacity, fitted with a handle.

 

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Knurl
Indented or crimped portion on the skirt at the top of the cap for holding liner in cap, used as a grip for applying cap and also for a better hold or grip for removing . Also providing non-skid surface during threading operation.

 

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Label Panel
That portion of the body of a container to which labels are affixed or decoration imprinted.

   
   

Labels
Self sticking, bar code, UPC, IBM, mylar, cloth, color, aluminum, wrap around, spot citing, sleeve, pressure sensitive, heat transfer, DOT, in-mold, expanded content, holographic, rotating, inverted vertical hanging, medical, shipping, international wordless, paper, booklet, production, inventory and shrink labels. Printing and decorating options are available.

   
   

Labels, Expanded-Content
Labels that expand for the printing of consumer directions for use. Available plain or printed, in a variety of colors. Hot stamping and embossing are also available.

   
   

Land Dimension
The sealing surface of a glass or plastic bottle.

   
   

Land Seal
Also called flat land seal. The Land Seal requires that a flat surface molded into the closure makes contact against the top of the sealing surface (land) of a container. This seal works best when the closure contains a liner material. It is best suited for threaded closures.

   
   

LDPE
Low Density Poly Ethylene. LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but more translucent. Used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE, but will yield a glossy bottle when produced in colors.

   
   

Lehr
A continuous belt oven for the annealing of glass, and for fusing of ceramic color on to glass.

   
   

Light Resistance
The ability of a plastic item to resist fading when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. Nearly all plastics tend to darken when exposed.

   
   

Light Seam
An edge of side defect. A defect characterized by thin spots in the side of the ware.

   
   

Liner
In the manufacture of closures, a disc of paper, cork, composition, etc., retained in a closure to provide a sealing surface against the finish of a container.

   
   

Liner Board
A type of paperboard used in making corrugated cartons.

   
   

Liner Fall Out
Liner falling out of cap; usually due to shrinkage, loss of moisture or under sized punching.

   
   

Linerless  Closure
A one component thermoplastic closure liners, including Teflon faced silicone, butyl, extruded and co-extruded, laminated and vented liners. Sizes range from 8mm to over 120mm. Some of the liner material options include pressure sensitive, sure seal, 3m top tab, pulp/poly, foil foil seal, and heat induction.

   
   

Lip
The extreme outer edge of the top of a container intended to facilitate pouring.

   
   

Lithography
Decorating of flat surfaces by means of plates. Lithography is the prime method for decorating cans, but must be done on the sheet steel before the can is formed.

   
   

LLDPE
Linear low density polyethylene.

   
   

Locking Ring
Metal closing ring around the rim of a full-removable-head container intended to retain the cover and form a seal. The ring is a circular mofified “V” or “U” section channel, the ends of which are drawn together by means of a bolt and the periphery thus shortened to develop the closure.

   
   

Long Neck
A neck defect. A neck which has been stretched longer than that specified.

   
   

LTL
Less than truck load. An order which will not fill the minimum standard weight required for truck load freight rate, which usually means that the customer must pay an LTL freight rate.

   
   

Lug
(1) Extentions around the circumference of a lid which are crimped down to hold the lid securely in place against the body of the container. (2) A small indentation or raised portion on the surface of a plastic bottle, provided as a means of indexing the bottle for operations such as multi  pass decorating or labeling. (3) A metal fastener used for securing the top or bottom heads of a fiber drum, steel drum or metal pail to the side wall.

   
   

Lug Closure
Interrupted thread finishes with the GPI finish number designations in the 2000 series.

   
   

Lug Cover
A cover for the metal drum or pail, with extensions around the circumference that are bent down to hold the cover securely in place against the container body.

   
   

Lug Finish
Also called a Lug/Twist. A glass container finish identified by intermittent horizontal tapering protruding ridges of glass that permit the specially shaped edges of the closure to slide between the protruding lugs and fasten securely with a partial turn. These lug finishes have the GPI designations in the 2000 series.

   
 

Lug/Twist
Intermittent thread design closure – commonly used for glass food containers.

 

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Medicine Cups
Plastic Cups usually found inverted on top of OTC liquid medicine bottles. Also called dose cups.

   
   

Megarad
Unit of radiation measurement.

   
   

Metallized Closure
Plastic closures with a surface deposit of aluminum coated with lacquers to render a decorative metallic effect.

   
   

Metallizing
The process of coating a plastic item with a thin layer of metal to give a gold, silver or other metal look. It is commonly used on closures used for cosmetic packaging.

   
   

Metric
A metric is the method used to express an indicator. A metric is used to gauge the issue or characteristic – represented by an indicator – that an organization wants or needs to assess. Metrics are often computational or quantitative, but can also be a qualitative assessment of an indicator. Metrics – particularly computational metrics – are typically expressed as a numerator and denominator, i.e., “A per B”.

   
   

Metric Conversions
Volume metric conversions include: 1 ounce = 29.57 or, 8 drams, 8 ounces = 236.60cc, 16 ounces = 473.20cc, and 32oz = 946.40cc. Liquid Capacity metric conversions include: 1 fluid ounce = 29.57ml, 8 fluid ounce = 236.60ml, 16 fluid ounce = 473.20ml, and 32 fluid oz = 946.40ml, 1 liter = 33.81 fluid ounces, 1 U.S. Gallon = 3.78 Liters, and 1 Imperial Gallon = 153.72 fluid ounces.

   
   

Migration
Transfer of a component of a material to a contacting material. In packaging, this often the movement of an undesirable component  of a packaging material into the product contained or it can be the loss of an important product component into the packaging material. Specified conditions of temperature, pressure and time should be provided.

   
   

Minimum Wall
A term designating the thickness of the wall (body) of a container. Usually specified as the minimum thickness allowable for the body of a container.

   
   

Mold Seam
A vertical line formed at the point of contact of the mold halves. The prominence of the line depends on the accuracy with which the mating mold halves are matched. Also known as parting line.

   
   

Monomer
A relatively simple chemical which can react to form a polymer.

   
   

Multi Cavity Mold
A mold with more than one cavity impressions. Therefore, the mold produces two or more bottles per molding cycle.

   
   

Multi-Layer Bottle
A bottle which is co-extruded with two or more layers to contain oxygen sensitive foods or industrial chemicals.

   
 

Narrow Mouth
Narrow mouth describes a container having an opening roughly one half the diameter of the container or smaller.

 

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Neck
(1)The part of a container where the bottle cross section decreases to form the finish. (2) A round fitting in a can for the purpose of pouring the contents, covered by a closure.

   
   

Neck Bead
Usually a protruding circle on the neck of the bottle.

   
   

Neck Insert
Part of the mold assembly which forms the neck and finish. Sometimes called neck rings.

   
   

Neck Ring
That part of the mold equipment which forms the outside of the neck finish of a bottle.

   
   

Neck Ring Seams
A finish defect. Seams which have a fin of glass around the parting line between the finish and the neck of the bottle.

   
 

Nylon
The generic name for polamides. A versatile family of thermoplastic resins that vary from relatively flexible products to tough strong and stiff materials. A key characteristic is resistance to oils and greases. Also outstanding resistancce to fatigue and repeated impact. Water vapor transmission rate is high and gas permeability is moderate. Nylon films are widely used for meat and cheese packaging, boil in bags and pouches.

 

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Oblong
A particular shape.  A rectangular figure having greater length than width, may have angle or rounded corners and parallel or nearly parallel sides.

   
   

OD
Outside dimension. The outside dimensions of a container, package or part. In metal drums, it is the diameter over the rolling hoops.

   
   

Offset Printing
This method of printing utilizes printing plates rather than silk screens to transfer the ink to the containers. Offset printing is more exact than silk screening, and is practical for multiple color labeling . Offset printing is used primarily of round containers. Because plates are engraved for each color rather than making screens, offset is more expensive than silk screening. The process involves transferring ink from a printing plate to a rubber blanket and subsequently to the sheet (surfaceto be decorated).

   
   

Opaque
Descriptive of material or substance which will not transmit light.

   
   

OPET
Oriented  PET

   
   

Orange Peel
An uneven surface somewhat resembling an orange peel.

   
   

Orifice
The opening in a container through which product is dispensed.

   
   

Orifice Reducer
Plug or fitment with a controlled diameter opening. When inserted in the I.D. of a bottle neck finish, it reduces the flow of product being dispensed.

   
   

Oval
A particular shape. A container which has an elliptical cross section perpendicular to the major axis.

   
   

Overcap
A secondary closure that fits over the primary closure or seal mechanism. It protects the primary closure from accidental dispensing. Overcaps are also used to enhance the design of a package.

   
   

Overflow Capacity
The capacity of a container to the top of the finish or to the point of overflow.

   
 

Oxidation
A chemical reaction involving combination with oxygen to form new components.

 

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P/S
Abbreviation for polystyrene. See polystyrene.

   
   

P/S Foam
Manufactured by SANCAP Liner Technology Inc. Polystyrene Foam is a backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. It is a P/S Foam blown into white foam and extruded to the thickness desired.

   
   

Packaging Component
A packaging component is any stand alone element of a primary or secondary package such as a bottle cap or a protective sleeve, or any stand alone element or transport packaging such as a pallet or strapping, and includes labels, adhesives, inks and/or coatings used on the component.

   
   

Packer
A line of bottles used primarily in the pharmaceutical industry. The bottles have large finishes with respect to bottle size, making bottles easier to pack.

   
   

Pad Printing
Direct transfer of ink by means of a pad. The operation is similar to that of a rubber stamp. It is used on small areas and also to decorate points on odd shaped containers that would otherwise be impossible by other means, i.e., eyes and nose coloring on the “honey bear” bottles.

   
   

Pail Lids
Plastic and steel pail lids in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors, and with a variety of closures and spouts. Labeling is available.

   
   

Pails
Plastic and steel. Various sizes and shapes are available, as well as different decorating options.

   
   

Panel Check
An edge or side defect. A check characterized by deep V-Shaped cracks appearing on the edge or side.

   
   

Paneling
Side wall collapse of a container occurring during aging or storage, caused by the development of a reduced pressure inside the container.

   
   

Parison
Also called a gob. A hollow plastic tube from which a container is blown in extrusion blow molding. In injection molding, it is plastic shape formed by the core rod and parison mold that is transferred into blow cavity for forming the final shape.

   
   

Permeability
(1)The passage of of gas, vapor, solid or liquid through a barrier without physically or chemically affecting it. (2) The rate of such passage.

   
   

PET
Polyethylene Terephthalate. Known as thermoplastic polyester. Has the unusual ability to exist in either an amorphous or highly crystalline state. This state is necessary for extruding the material, and the amorphous state permits it to be oriented. Widely used in beverage containers, food trays designed for microwave and conventional ovens.

   
   

PETG
Polyethylene Terephthalate G copolymer. Similar to engineering resins due to it’s strength and durability. However, its glass-like clarity, toughness and excellent gas-barrier properties make it an outstanding choice for storing biological. Tests have shown PETG to be biologically equivalent to, or better than Type 1 borosilicate glass bottles for cell culture applications. In tests using a wide variety of cell lines, PETG was determined to be a non-cytotoxic, and media stored in PETG demonstrated proliferative and morphological characteristics comparable to control media. In fact, PETG bottles allowed growth of good monolayers directly on the surface of the bottle. PETG can be sterilized with radiation or compatible chemicals but cannot be autoclaved. Chemical resistance is fair.

   
   

Phenolic
Generic name for phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting plastic.

   
   

Pilferproof Seal
A seal that cannot be opened without partially destroying the cap or otherwise showing evidence of tampering.

   
   

Pinched Neck
A neck defect. A neck which has been pushed or pinched in.

   
   

Pinch-Off
In plastic bottles manufacturing, the bottom of the parison that is pinched off when the mold closes.

   
   

Pinhole
A very small hole in a plastic container,film,etc.

   
   

Pipets, Transfer
Variations include digital, fixed, general purpose, graduated, fine tip, special purpose, narrow stem and extra long.

   
   

Pitch
On a closure thread, the distance from one point to a similar point on the next adjacent thread.

   
   

Plasticizer
Chemical agent added to plastic compositions to make them softer and more flexible.

   
   

Plastics, Blow Molded
Stock and custom blow molded plastic parts. Various types of resins used include HDPE, LDPE, P/P, PVC, PET, K-resin, thermoplastic rubber, elastomer, Lexan and Barex.

   
   

Plastics, Dip Molded
Dip molding is used to produce custom molded plastic parts, including grips, sleeves and bellows. The process offers low tooling costs, short tooling lead times, various surface textures and no exterior surface parting lines.

   
   

Plastics, Injection Molded
Stock and custom injection molded plastics. Various types of resins used include engineered resins, commodity resins, HDPE, Polycarbonates, P/P, K-resin, thermoplastic rubber and elastomer.

   
   

Plastisol
A suspension of a finely divided resin in a plasticizer.

   
   

Plug
(1) A type of closure which is designed to be inserted into the opening of a container. May be held by friction or by screw threads. (2) A threaded closure part for metal drums. Usually marketed with a receiving flange which is fastened to the drum body or head by welding or other method. (3) A bung. (4) The removable top furnished with certain types of cans.

   
   

Plug Seal
A narrow non-flexible protrusion molded into a closure which fits into the bottle neck during normal bottle sealing operations. To be effective, specific inside dimensional tolerances are required for both the closure plug and the bottle neck finish. Plug seals are most commonly seen on snap on style closures.

   
   

Plugs
Stock and custom plugs available, including mailing tube plugs, even tint plugs, side pull plugs, fitting plugs and vented plugs.

   
   

Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate is window clear, amazingly strong and rigid. It is autoclavable, non-toxic, and the toughest of all thermoplastics. PC is a special type of polyester in which dihydric phenols are joined through the carbonate linkages. These linkages are subject to chemical reaction with bases and concentrated acids, cydrolytic attack at elevated temperatures (e.g. during autoclaving), and make PC solublein various organic solvents. For many applications, the transparency and unusual strength of PC offset these limitations.

   
   

Polyethylene
A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of ethylene. It is normally a translucent, tough, waxy solid which is unaffected by water and a large range of chemicals. There are three general classifications: low density, medium density and high density.

   
   

Polymer
A high molecular weight organic compound, natural or synthetic, whose structure can be represented by a repeated small unit, the polymer; i.e., polyethylene, rubber, cellulose. Synthetic polymers are formed by addition or condensation polymerization of monomers. If two or more monomers are involved, copolymer is obtained. Some polymers are elastomers, some plastics.

   
   

Polypropylene
Similar to polyethylene, but each unit of the chain has a methyl group attached. It is translucent, autoclavable, and has no known solvent at room temperature. It is slightly more susceptible than polyethylene to strong oxidizing agents. It offers the best stress-crack resistance of the polyolefins. Products made of polypropylene are brittle at ambient temperature and may crack or break if dropped from benchtop height. Used in film, in sheet and for molded rigid containers.

   
   

Polystyrene
A thermoplastic material derived from the polymerization of styrene (vinyl benzene); non-toxic, tasteless, odorless, good general dielectric properties; excellent water and weather resistance and resistant to most foods, drinks, etc., with the exception of essential oils, gasoline, turpentine, which will harm the material. Poor impact strength.

   
   

Polyvinyl Chloride
Abbreviation PVC. Rigid, natural straw color, transparent, good barrier properties with excellent resistance to oxygen permeation, excellent resistance to oils and fair impact resistance.

   
   

Pouches
Various films are available for stock and custom pouches to create a flexible package for liquids, including chemicals, food products and beverages.

   
   

Powder Shakers
Complete package, include container, powder shaker fitment  and closure, available in a variety of sizes and shapes.

   
   

Powder Sifters
Complete package, including container, powder sifter fitment and closure, available in a variety of sizes and shapes.

   
   

Preform
An injection molded parison which is blow molded by a second step to form a plastic bottle.

   
   

Pre-Forms, Stock Bottle
Stock PET pre-forms to manufacture bottles ranging in weight from 24 grams to 78 grams. Various neck finishes available.

   
   

Pressure Sensitive Label
A die cut label coated with a pressure-sensitive pre-applied tacky adhesive and requiring pressure only to adhere it to a package or product.

   
   

Printing
Custom printing, including brochures and catalogues, typesetting, photography, letterhead printing, computer graphic design, ceramic printing for glass containers, paperboard imprinting, pad printing, offset printing on metal plates, and printing on carbonless forms.

   
   

Prototype Mold
A simplified mold construction often made from a light metal casting alloy or from an epoxy resin to provide actual molding for evaluation and testing prior to production mold consideration.

   
   

Pumps, Dispensing
Plastic, glass and metal dispensers, double dispensers, airless dispensers, bottle top dispensers for dispensing aggressive reagents, sensitive reagents or sterile fluids, syringe dispensers, tablet dispensers, lotion and soap dispensers, metered dose dispensers, and dispensing drums for pails and drums.

   
   

Pumps, Spray Mist
Glass, plastic, metal and enamel spray mist pumps, purse sprayers and table atomizers. Decorating options are available.

   
   

Purging
In plastic bottle manufacturing, the forcing out of one color or one resin type by another from an extruder or cylinder prior to molding a new color or resin.

   
 

PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride. A thermoplastic material composed of vinyl chloride, a colorless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalines. Compounded with plasticizers, it yields a flexible material superior to rubber in aging properties.

PVDC A thermoplastic polymer of vinylidene chloride, it is a white powder with softening temperature at 185-200 degrees C. Polyvinylidene Chloride is also known as “Saran”.

 

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Ramp
A small depressed cavity (detent) in the base of the bottle to act as a guide in positioning the bottle in the decorating machine for application of decoration.

   
   

Reaming
A method used to trim and size the inside of a plastic bottle neck finish. A special rotating cutting tool trims the sealing surface smooth and simultaneously reams (bores) the bottom opening to the desired size.

   
   

Recessed Panel
A container design in which the flat area for labeling is indented or recessed.

   
   

Regrind
In plastic bottle manufacturing, ground materials from flash and trimmings which is usually blended with virgin material and remolded.

   
   

Removal Torque
The turning or twisting force required to remove a lug cap, screw cap or twist off crown. Usually expressed in terms of “inch pounds” and measured by means of a reliable torque meter.

   
   

Reverse Taper Closure
A closure silhouette characterized by the top of the closure being larger in diameter than the open end.

   
   

Roll-On Balls, Plastic
Hollow and solid roll-on balls for deodorant containers in various sizes. Materials used include HDPE, LDPE, P/P, P/S, PTEE, acetal and nylon.

   
 

RSC
Regular slotted container. A rectangular three dimensional shipping container, made of either solid fibreboard or of corrugated fibreboard. Outer flaps meet. Inner flaps do not meet unless length and width are the same.

 

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Scoops
A wide variety is available, including P/P and P/E measuring scoops, PET powder scoops and P/P double end scoops.

   
   

Screw Thread Vial
A vial with a very short neck and an outside screw thread finish.

   
   

Sealing Discs
Various sizes to fit most single and double wall jars, and cosmetic cases. Options include embossing and with or without tabs.

   
   

Sealing Surface
That portion of a glass or plastic container finish which will make contact with the interior liner of the cap to effect the seal.

   
   

Serum Vial
A vial having a neck with a relatively small opening to receive a rubber plug stopper and aluminum seal.

   
   

SFYP
When pressure sensitive or heat induction liners are printed with the words “Sealed for your protection”.

   
   

Shrink Bands
Stock and custom sizes of PVC and PETG shrink bands, including tamper evident, seamless and seamed bands, cellulose self-sealing bands and Viscose Celon shrink bands. Options include printing and color decoration.

   
   

Shrink Bands & Labels
Pre-decorated plastic sleeves that are slipped over the container and heated until they conform to the surface of the container. Same principle as the sleeve label, but superior for odd and small shapes.

   
   

Sifter Fitment
A plastic or metal component of a package designed to allow shaking out of dry products, as with a table salt shaker. Snaps over bead, with metal or plastic cap applied over the fitment.

   
   

Silkscreening
A method of printing in which the ink is forced through a design on a taut screen screen, made of nylon, wire, or other tough screen material, onto the container to be printed. This method can be applied to closures, liners and most containers regardless of shape or size.

   
   

Skirt
The vertical part of a closure below the shoulder.

   
   

Sleeve Label
A decorated, plastic label made into a tubular form that fits over and on plastic bottles.

   
   

Slip Cap
(1) A metal closure with indentations on its sides to make a friction fit on a vial with a slip-cap finish. (2) A closure made of soft material such as polyethylene or rubber, without threads, to be pushed over the tip or neck of a container and held in place by friction.

   
   

Snap Top
The most prevalent hinged closure. This closure features a spud and orifice design that is sanitary and self cleaning to prevent clogging. It is available in a wide range or orifice sizes. The snap can also be designed with an off center spout to direct product flow. The pour spout can also be easily lined with a variety of heat sealed materials to ensure product freshness.

   
   

Spatulas
Varieties for the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food and laboratory markets.

   
   

Specimen Mailers
Fibreboard, paper screw cap and aluminum specimen mailers.

   
   

Spray Frosting
The technique of spray coating a glass container to create a frosted , matte translucent appearance.

   
   

Sprayers
Trigger, finger tip, pump, continuous spray and metering sprayers, hose end sprayers for lawn and garden, and compressed air sprayers. Different types of decoration are available, including silk screen and hot stamp decoration.

   
   

Stacker Cap
A closure designed specifically to nest with the bottom plate of a container to facilitate the stacking of filled containers on top of each other.

   
   

Stencils
Stencil kits and stenciling systems for a wide range of applications, including safety and maintenance.

   
   

Sterilization
Gamma irradiation, ethylene oxide, and electron beam sterilization. Installation of sterilization systems available for companies requiring in house processing. Sterilizing cleaners and sterilized tests also available.

   
   

Stippling
A decoration consisting of a system of closely spaced small raised dots on the outer surface of a container or closure.

   
   

Strip Mold
Mold action in the manufacture of closures: After the injection cycle is completed, the cavity is removed and the stripper sleeve moves forward forcing the closure to flare and strip over the core.

   
   

Styrene Acrylontrile
Similar to general purpose polystyrene except for improved impact resistance and barrier properties; increased rigidity and UV stability; natural straw color; transparent.

   
 

Syringes
Varieties include a dual syringe with a snap-off nozzle tip, and specialty syringes with various tips for a wide variety of applications, including infant care, feeding small animals or birds, and applying glues, dyes, lotions, resins and inks.

 

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T/H
Abbreviation for tight head. Used by drum and pail manufactures to indicate that the lid is a structural component of the drum pail, instead of a separate part.

   
   

Tacseal
A form of liner usually of glassine that is applied over and bonded to a waxed underliner. When cap is removed from glass, the tacseal liner adheres to the glass lip as a security type liner.

   
   

Tamper Resistant Seal
A seal that cannot be opened without partially destroying the cap or otherwise showing evidence of tampering.

   
   

Tamper Evident Band
(1) A secondary closure made of aluminum, steel, plastic, tape or film to be applied over a primary cap-closure of a rigid container, and designed to require tearing off by manual effort before the container is opened or contents removed. Purpose is to reveal any tampering with the primary closure. (2) Also a perforated extension of tamper evident closures.

   
   

Tanks, Storage
Metal or plastic containers designed for liquid storage, processing and transporting.

   
   

Tear Strip
A narrow ribbon of film, cord, etc., usually incorporated mechanically in the wrapper or overwrap during the wrapping operation or imbedded in a carton to facilitate opening of the packaging. The scored strip on a key opening can. Tear tape.

   
   

Tear Tab
An extension of the tearing strip on a package to permit easy grasping with the fingers.

   
   

Tear Under Finish
A finish defect. A finish which has a small surface section of glass torn from under it.

   
   

Teflon FEP
Teflon FEP in translucent, flexible and feels very heavy because of its high density.  It resists all known chemicals except molten alkali metals, elemental fluorine and fluorine precursors at elevated temperatures. It should not be used with concentrated perchloric acid. FEP withstands temperatures from -270 degrees C and may be sterilized repeatedly by all known chemical and thermal methods. It can even be boiled in nitric acid.

   
   

Thermoforming
Custom vacuum and pressure thermoforming. Thermoformed packaging is available for food and product displays, blister packs, clamshells and tri folds.

   
   

Thermoplastic
A plastic that will repeatedly soften when heated and harden when cooled. Typical packaging thermoplastics are polystyrenes, polyethylenes, acrylics, vinyls, and nylons.

   
   

Thread
The indented curved formed section of the cap on the skirt that engages and matches the thread of the container for screw fit purposes. The thread may be continuous or interrupted.

   
   

Tolerance
A specified allowance for deviations in weighing, measuring, etc., or for deviations from the standard dimensions or weight.

   
   

Torque – Application
The rotational force with which a closure is applied to a bottle finish during capping. It affects seal integrity and tightness between bottle and closure. A properly established application torque will provide sealing integrity under expected conditions of temperatures, vibration, humidity and shock.

   
   

Torque – Chart
Closure Size Suggested tightness of application i in inch pounds torque as applied by hand

  • 8mm 3 – 7
  • 10mm 4 – 8
  • 13mm 5 – 9
  • 15mm 5 -9
  • 18mm 7 – 10
  • 20mm 8 – 12
  • 22mm 9 – 14
  • 24mm 10 – 18
  • 28mm 12 – 21
  • 30mm 13 – 23
  • 33mm 15 – 25
  • 38mm 17 – 26
  • 43mm 17 – 27
  • 48mm 19 – 30
  • 53mm 21 – 36
  • 58mm 23 – 40
  • 63mm 25 – 43
  • 70mm 28 – 50
  • 83mm 32 – 60
  • 86mm 40 – 65
  • 89mm 40 – 70
  • 100mm 45 – 70
  • 110mm 45 – 70
  • 120mm 55 – 95
  • 132mm 60 – 95
   
   

Torque – Removal
The rotational force with which a threaded closure is removed from a bottle finish. It defines the amount of rotational force necessary to loosen, open, or remove the closure. A properly designed package should have a removal torque range appropriate for its itended use and the consideration of any requirements for child resistant or tamper evident closure needs.

   
   

Torque – Stripping
The application torque which is sufficient to cause the closure and/or bottle finish to distort and override the matching closure/bottle threads, resulting in loose caps, no seal or package component deformation.

   
   

Torque Tester
A type of torque meter used for measuring removal torque of screw caps, lug caps, or twist off crowns. Can also be used to apply screw caps to a known predetermined tightness.

   
   

TPE
Thermoplastic elastomer

   
   

Transfer Bead
A projecting bead on the outer surface of some glass containers, usually just below the finish, to provide a surface of engagement for the jaws of handling devices during manufacture.

   
   

Translucent
Allowing light, but not detailed images, to pass through; semitransparent.

   
   

Transparent 
Allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be distinctly seen.

   
   

Trays
PET cake and ice cream roll trays, glass trays, medical prep, sterilized instrument and procedure set up trays, produce trays, CPET and HDPE trays for use in microwaves or ovens, food cutting, display and carrying trays as well as wallpaper and roller trays.

   
   

Tri-Foil
Manufactured by Tri-Seal, a Tekni-Plex Company. Liner utilizing F-217 as a backing material bonded to a polyester film/white LDPE/aluminum foil facing. Provides very good control of moisture vapor and gas transmissions.

   
   

Tri-Pen Series
Manufactured by Tri-Seal, a Tekni-Plex Company. Liner utilizing F-217 as a backing material and any of various materials. The face material, in thickness of 0.0005” to 0.002” depends on the product being packaged. Possible face materials include polyester, PVDC coated polyester, PVDC film, nylon/EVOH, EVA/ EVOH and aluminum foil.

   
   

Tubes
Stock and custom plastic and aluminum dispensing tubes and collapsible aluminum tubes in various sizes, styles and shapes. Decorating and stock or custom closure options are available.

   
   

Tubes, Flex
Shapes include square, round, triangle and rectangle. Options include shell, beaded, hang up and threaded.

   
   

Tubs
HDPE, LDPE, P/P, P/E, P/S, PET, PVC tubs. Various sizes, colors and shapes are available. Lids are also available as well as printing, silk screening, labeling and decorating.

   
   

Tubular Glass
Containers made from preformed hollow glass tubes. The tubes are cut into desired length and by heat and pressure they are shaped into the desired configurations. Unlike blown glass, tubular glass items do not require molds.

   
   

Turret
An injection molded two piece dispensing closure. It requires that the turret “spout” be lifted with a finger to open and dispense.

   
   

Type I Glass
A borosilicate glass which releases the least amount of alkali. It is commonly used for pharmaceutical or fine chemical products that are sensitive to PH changes.

   
   

Type II Glass
A soda lime glass (Type III) that has been de-alkalized by treating the interior surfaces to eat away the alkali on or near the glass surfaces. The undesirable characteristic of Type II glass is that the treating etches the surface, causing a frosted appearance.

   
   

Type III Glass
A soda lime glass and the most common in use. Type III is compatible with most items:  Food, beverages, common chemicals, etc.

 

 


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Unit Dose Packaging
A package which contains one discrete dosage form, i.e., one tablet, one capsule, one 2ml quantity of liquid, etc., A unit package consists of the unit quantity, protective wrapping, cushioning, and identification marking, up to but not including the shipping container. Single dose unit packaging is used for foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices and some industrial products.

   
   

Unit Dose Packaging
A package which contains one discrete dosage form, i.e., one tablet, one capsule, one 2ml quantity of liquid, etc., A unit package consists of the unit quantity, protective wrapping, cushioning, and identification marking, up to but not including the shipping container. Single dose unit packaging is used for foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices and some industrial products.

   
   

Unscrewing Mold
Mold action in the manufacturing of closures. After the injection cycle is completed the mold cavity is removed. The core then begins to rotate, literally unscrewing the core from the closure, as a stripper sleeve moves forward to eject the closure.

   
   

UPC
Universal Product Code. A 10 digit, all numeric code which uniquely identifies a product. The first 5 digits, called the manufacturer identification number, identify each manufacturer or organization controlling controlling the label of the product. The second 5 digits called called the item code, identify individual items within the companies and are assigned by the manufactured or organization controlling the label of the product.

   
   

Urea
Generic name for urea-formaldehyde. A thermosetting compound used to fabricate light colored plastic closures as opposed to phenol which is for dark closures.

   
 

UV Stabilizer
Any chemical compound which, when mixed with a thermoplastic resin, selectively absorbs UV rays and minimizes chemical and/or physical changes that may be engineered by UV.

 

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Valve Cap
A closure that includes a valve to regulate the flow of the product from the container.

   
   

Valve Seal
A valve seal finish requires a closure mechanism that will seal a container on the inner portion of the container wall at the top of the finish.

   
   

Valves
Styles included metering, corrosion resistant, and check valves, valves for flexible tubing and valve manifolds.

   
   

Vent
In a mold, a shallow channel or minute hole cut in the cavity to allow air to escape as the material enters and to facilitate ejection of the molded part from the cavity.

   
   

Vials, Glass
Styles include tubular, serum, injectable antibiotic, safety colored vials. Various sizes and colors are available.

   
 

Vinyl
Informal generic term for any of the vinyl resins, or for film, or other product made from them.

 

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Waist
The central portion of a container which has a smaller cross section than the adjacent areas.

   
   

Wavy Appearance
A general defect. Irregular surface on either the inside or outside of the container.

   
   

Well Cap
A closure for a container in which there is an interior recessed opening into which an applicator may be affixed.

   
   

Wide Mouth
Wide mouth describes any container having an opening roughly half of the diameter of the container to almost the full diameter size of the container.

   
 

Wide Mouth Finish
A finish on the container, the diameter of the finish being large relative to the diameter of the body.

 

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